With a growing understanding of the role of inflammation in CNS neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuroinflammatory disease has discovered distinct immune responses involving the adaptive and innate immune systems at different stages of disease. These responses could be used as therapeutic targets as well as driving disease processes. Immunotherapeutic techniques that have proven effective in Alzheimer's disease are increasingly being applied to other neurodegenerative diseases. The function of particular immune cell populations in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders has received more attention in recent years. Researchers in the discipline are working to understand the molecular pathways that underpin neurodegenerative diseases, which is one of the most important concerns of our era.